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As model auditors, we see this formula all of the time, but it is wrong. Pre-tax cash flows don’t just inflate post-tax cash flows by (1 – tax rate). Some cash flows do not incur a tax charge, there may be tax losses to consider and timing issues too. It’s the rate that generates the correct pre-tax WACC so that the pre-tax and post-tax NPVs are equal. Debt can be a critical device for businesses that know how to calculate the costs and benefits accurately. It’s important to understand how debt impacts a company’s bottom line so businesses can optimize their financial strategy.

If you have more than one loan, you’d add up the interest rate for each to determine your company’s cost for the debt. Currently, the US effective tax rate for corporations is 21%, but Congress might raise those rates per the sitting president’s wishes. If those rates do rise, that will impact the cost of debt for every publicly traded company and is something to keep in mind. Compiling a list of outstanding debt is relatively easy, but it’s not always clear how much businesses are paying for their debt. This list should include the individual cost of capital for each debt product. That means a business needs to find every interest and lease rate it pays for its financing products.

## What Makes the Cost of Debt Increase?

It’s not uncommon for the general population to view debt as an unfavorable financial instrument, but entrepreneurs and finance directors know the value of leveraging capital. In fact, smart business owners know how to use debt as an actual tool to grow their business. The total cost of interest before tax is $124,000 ($100,000+$24,000) and debt balance is $2,400,000 ($4,000,000+$400,000). Further, the pre-tax cost of the debt can be calculated simply by obtaining an interest rate in the debt instrument. Lets’ discuss the steps to calculate the after-tax cost of debt.

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## Debt as a Relatively Cheaper Form of Finance

For example, if a company’s only debt is a bond that it has issued with a 5% rate, then its pretax cost of debt is 5%. If its effective tax rate is 30%, then the difference between 100% and 30% is 70%, and 70% of the 5% is 3.5%.

- In fact, smart business owners know how to use debt as an actual tool to grow their business.
- It is the cost of debt that is included in calculation of weighted average cost of capital .
- The weight of equity would be .75, which is $60 million divided by $80 million.
- On the flip side, financing via equity does not qualify for tax deductibility as dividend is not deductible while calculating taxable base.
- Conversely, as the organization’s profits increase, it will be subject to a higher tax rate, so its after-tax cost of debt will decline.
- Adam Hayes, Ph.D., CFA, is a financial writer with 15+ years Wall Street experience as a derivatives trader.

Because of the write-off on taxes, our wine distributor only pays $3,500 ($5,000 interest expense – $1,500 tax write-off) on its debt, equating to a cost of debt of 3.5%. If a company uses exclusively short-term for financing, a good idea is to use its credit rating to approximate the cost of long-term debt.

## Determine the Pretax Cost of Debt.

In this case, we will have the cost of debt value in percentage. For example, let’s say your friend offers you a $1,000 loan at 10% interest, and your company’s tax rate is 40%.

### How is the before-tax cost of debt converted into the after-tax cost?

After-tax cost of debt is the net cost of debt determined by adjusting the gross cost of debt for its tax benefits. It equals pre-tax cost of debt multiplied by (1 – tax rate). It is the cost of debt that is included in calculation of weighted average cost of capital (WACC).

Each year, the lender will receive $30 in total interest expense twice.

## Estimating the Cost of Debt: YTM

With debt equity, a company takes out financing, which could be an SBA loan, merchant cash advance, invoice financing, or any other type of financing. The loan is repaid, along with an interest expense, over months or years. The term debt equity could be confusing, but is basically referring to a loan. The tax delay assumption is used aftertax cost of debt calculator to build in a delay for the payment of tax. It’s important to realise that DCFs are calculated using cash flows and it has to be when the tax is paid, not when the liability arises. We have to “guess” the answer and to do that we’ll need to use Excel’s Goal Seek functionality if we are using Excel as our valuation software of choice.